While many people think that chameleon coloration serves only as camouflage, chameleons also change color to communicate with other chameleons. These color changes maximize communication between chameleons while minimizing the change of predation.
[Photo and caption by Meredith Lutz]
Stuart-Fox, D., & Moussalli, A. (2008). Selection for social signalling drives the evolution of chameleon colour change. PLoS Biology, 6, e25.