A California Quail (Callipepla californica) poses majestically on a shrub. California Quail participate in brood-mixing, where multiple female quail will raise multiple offspring (related and not-related) in communal family groups. It is suggested that females involved in communal family groups also live longer than those in single family groups. There are benefits of being a social bird!
[Photo by Alycia Drwencke, caption by Maggie Creamer & Alycia Drwencke]
Calkins, J. D. (2007). The family behavior of California Quail: a molecular analysis. The Condor, 109(4), 962-967.
[Edited by Maggie Creamer]